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Canon MT-26 EX-RT – Macro Twinflash

R31,700.00 R21,989.00

Canon MR-14EX Mk II Macro Ringlite Flash

R19,200.00 R13,289.00

Canon Speedlite 600EX II-RT – Flash

R17,900.00 R12,389.00

Hahnel Modus 600RT MK II Speedlight Pro Kit for Canon – Camera Flash

R12,000.00 R9,789.00

Canon 470EX-AI Speedlite – Flash

R13,900.00 R9,589.00

Hahnel Modus 600RT MK II Speedlight Pro Kit for Sony – Camera Flash

R10,200.00 R8,285.00

Hahnel Modus 600RT MK II Speedlight Pro Kit for Nikon – Camera Flash

R10,200.00 R8,285.00

FUJIFILM EF-60 – Camera Flash

R10,300.00 R7,689.00

Phottix Mitros+ TTL Transceiver – Flash for Nikon

R7,380.00

Phottix Mitros+ TTL Transceiver – Camera Flash for Canon

R7,380.00

FUJIFILM EF-W1 Wireless Commander – Flash Trigger

R9,600.00 R7,189.00

Sigma EF-630 Flash for Nikon – DSLR Camera Flash

R8,300.00 R6,745.00

Sigma EF-630 Flash for Canon – DSLR Camera Flash

R8,300.00 R6,745.00

Canon Speedlite 430EX III-RT – Flash

R9,100.00 R6,289.00

Hahnel Modus 600RT MK II Wireless Kit for Nikon – Camera Flash

R6,700.00 R5,485.00

Hahnel Modus 600RT MK II Wireless Kit for Sony – Camera Flash

R5,400.00 R4,385.00

Hahnel Modus 600RT MK II Wireless Kit for Canon – Camera Flash

R5,400.00 R4,385.00

Hahnel Modus 360RT Speedlight for Canon – Camera Flash

R4,900.00 R3,989.00

Hahnel Modus 360RT Speedlight for Sony – Camera Flash

R4,900.00 R3,989.00

Hahnel Modus 360RT Speedlight for Nikon – Camera Flash

R4,900.00 R3,989.00

Camera Flashes

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A flash is a device used in photography producing a flash of artificial light (typically 1/1000 to 1/200 of a second) at a color temperature of about 5500 K[citation needed] to help illuminate a scene. A major purpose of a flash is to illuminate a dark scene. Other uses are capturing quickly moving objects or changing the quality of light. Flash refers either to the flash of light itself or to the electronic flash unit discharging the light. Most current flash units are electronic, having evolved from single-use flashbulbs and flammable powders. Modern cameras often activate flash units automatically.

Flash units are commonly built directly into a camera. Some cameras allow separate flash units to be mounted via a standardized “accessory mount” bracket (a hot shoe). In professional studio equipment, flashes may be large, standalone units, or studio strobes, powered by special battery packs or connected to mains power. They are either synchronized with the camera using a flash synchronization cable or radio signal, or are light-triggered, meaning that only one flash unit needs to be synchronized with the camera, and in turn triggers the other units, called slaves.

Contents
1 Types
1.1 Flash-lamp/Flash powder
1.2 Flashbulbs
1.2.1 Flashcubes, Magicubes and Flipflash
1.3 Electronic flash
1.4 High speed flash
1.5 Multi-flash
1.6 Flash intensity
1.7 Flash duration
1.8 Flash LED used in phones
1.9 Focal-plane-shutter synchronization
2 Technique
3 Drawbacks
4 Gallery
5 See also
6 References
7 Further reading
8 External links
Types
Flash-lamp/Flash powder
Main article: Flash-lamp

Demonstration of a magnesium flash powder lamp from 1909
Studies of magnesium by Bunsen and Roscoe in 1859 showed that burning this metal produced a light with similar qualities to daylight. The potential application to photography inspired Edward Sonstadt to investigate methods of manufacturing magnesium so that it would burn reliably for this use. He applied for patents in 1862 and by 1864 had started the Manchester Magnesium Company with Edward Mellor. With the help of engineer William Mather, who was also a director of the company, they produced flat magnesium ribbon, which was said to burn more consistently and completely so giving better illumination than round wire. It also had the benefit of being a simpler and cheaper process than making round wire.[1] Mather was also credited with the invention of a holder for the ribbon, which formed a lamp to burn it in.[2] A variety of magnesium ribbon holders were produced by other manufacturers, such as the Pistol Flashmeter,[3] which incorporated an inscribed ruler that allowed the photographer to use the correct length of ribbon for the exposure they needed. The packaging also implies that the magnesium ribbon was not necessarily broken off before being ignited.

Vintage AHA smokeless flash powder lamp kit, Germany
An alternative to ribbon flash powder, a mixture of magnesium powder and potassium chlorate, was introduced by its German inventors Adolf Miethe and Johannes Gaedicke in 1887. A measured amount was put into a pan or trough and ignited by hand, producing a brief brilliant flash of light, along with the smoke and noise that might be expected from such an explosive event. This could be a life-threatening activity, especially if the flash powder was damp.[4] An electrically triggered flash lamp was invented by Joshua Lionel Cowen in 1899. His patent describes a device for igniting photographers’ flash powder by using dry cell batteries to heat a wire fuse. Variations and alternatives were touted from time to time and a few found a measure of success, especially for amateur use. In 1905, one French photographer was using intense non-explosive flashes produced by a special mechanized carbon arc lamp to photograph subjects in his studio,[5] but more portable and less expensive devices prevailed. On through the 1920s, flash photography normally meant a professional photographer sprinkling powder into the trough of a T-shaped flash lamp, holding it aloft, then triggering a brief and (usually) harmless bit of pyrotechnics.

Flashbulbs

Ernst Leitz Wetzlar flash from 1950s

Flashbulbs have ranged in size from the diminutive AG-1 to the massive No. 75.

Kodak Brownie Hawkeye with “Kodalite Flasholder” and Sylvania P25 blue-dot daylight-type flashbulb

The AG-1 flashbulb, introduced in 1958, used wires protruding from its base as electrical contacts; this eliminated the need for a separate metal base.
The use of flash powder in an open lamp was replaced by flashbulbs; magnesium filaments were contained in bulbs filled with oxygen gas, and electrically ignited by a contact in the camera shutter.[6] Manufactured flashbulbs were first produced commercially in Germany in 1929.[7] Such a bulb could only be used once, and was too hot to handle immediately after use, but the confinement of what would otherwise have amounted to a small explosion was an important advance. A later innovation was the coating of flashbulbs with a plastic film to maintain bulb integrity in the event of the glass shattering during the flash. A blue plastic film was introduced as an option to match the spectral quality of the flash to daylight-balanced colour film. Subsequently, the magnesium was replaced by zirconium, which produced a brighter flash.

Flashbulbs took longer to reach full brightness and burned for longer than electronic flashes. Slower shutter speeds (typically from 1/10 to 1/50 of a second) were used on cameras to ensure proper synchronization. Cameras with flash sync triggered the flashbulb a fraction of a second before opening the shutter, allowing faster shutter speeds. A flashbulb widely used during the 1960s was the Press 25, the 25-millimetre (1 in) flashbulb often used by newspapermen in period movies, usually attached to a press camera or a twin-lens reflex camera. Its peak light output was around a million lumens. Other flashbulbs in common use were the M-series, M-2, M-3 etc., which had a small (“miniature”) metal bayonet base fused to the glass bulb. The largest flashbulb ever produced was the GE Mazda No. 75, being over eight inches long with a girth of 14 inches, initially developed for nighttime aerial photography during World War II.[8]

The all-glass PF1 bulb was introduced in 1954.[9] Eliminating both the metal base, and the multiple manufacturing steps needed to attach it to the glass bulb, cut the cost substantially compared to the larger M series bulbs. The design required a fibre ring around the base to hold the contact wires against the side of the glass base. An adapter was available allowing the bulb to fit into flash guns that accepted the bayonet capped bulbs. The PF1 (along with the M2) had a faster ignition time (less delay between shutter contact and peak output), so it could be used with X synch below 1/30 of a second—while most bulbs require a shutter speed of 1/15 on X synch to keep the shutter open long enough for the bulb to ignite and burn. A smaller version, the AG-1 was introduced in 1958 which did not require the fibre ring. Though it was smaller and had reduced light output, it was cheaper to manufacture and rapidly supplanted the PF1.

Flashcubes, Magicubes and Flipflash

Flashcube fitted to a Kodak Instamatic camera, showing both unused (left) and used (right) bulbs

Undersides of Flashcube (left) and Magicube (right) cartridges

“Flip flash” type cartridge
In 1965 Eastman Kodak of Rochester, New York replaced the individual flashbulb technology used on early Instamatic cameras with the Flashcube developed by Sylvania Electric Products.[10][11]

A flashcube was a module with four expendable flashbulbs, each mounted at 90° from the others in its own reflector. For use it was mounted atop the camera with an electrical connection to the shutter release and a battery inside the camera. After each flash exposure, the film advance mechanism also rotated the flashcube 90° to a fresh bulb. This arrangement allowed the user to take four images in rapid succession before inserting a new flashcube.

The later Magicube (or X-Cube) retained the four-bulb format, but did not require electrical power. It was not interchangeable with the original Flashcube. Each bulb in a Magicube was set off by releasing one of four cocked wire springs within the cube. The spring struck a primer tube at the base of the bulb, which contained a fulminate, which in turn ignited shredded zirconium foil in the flash. A Magicube could also be fired using a key or paper clip to trip the spring manually. X-cube was an alternate name for Magicubes, indicating the appearance of the camera’s socket.

Other common flashbulb-based devices were the Flashbar and Flipflash, which provided ten flashes from a single unit. The bulbs in a Flipflash were set in a vertical array, putting a distance between the bulb and the lens, eliminating red eye. The Flipflash name derived from the fact that once half the flashbulbs had been used, the unit had to be flipped over and re-inserted to use the remaining bulbs. In many Flipflash cameras, the bulbs were ignited by electrical currents produced when a piezoelectric crystal was struck mechanically by a spring-loaded striker, which was cocked each time the film was advanced.

Electronic flash
The electronic flash tube was introduced by Harold Eugene Edgerton in 1931;[12] he made several iconic photographs, such as one of a bullet bursting through an apple. The large photographic company Kodak was initially reluctant to take up the idea.[13] Electronic flash, often called “strobe” in the US following Edgerton’s use of the technique for stroboscopy, came into some use in the late 1950s, although flashbulbs remained dominant in amateur photography until the mid 1970s. Early units were expensive, and often large and heavy; the power unit was separate from the flash head and was powered by a large lead-acid battery carried with a shoulder strap. Towards the end of the 1960s electronic flashguns of similar size to conventional bulb guns became available; the price, although it had dropped, was still high. The electronic flash system eventually superseded bulb guns as prices came down.

A typical electronic flash unit has electronic circuitry to charge a high-capacitance capacitor to several hundred volts. When the flash is triggered by the shutter’s flash synchronization contact, the capacitor is discharged rapidly through a permanent flash tube, producing an immediate flash lasting typically 1/1000 of a second, shorter than shutter speeds used, with full brightness before the shutter has started to close, allowing easy synchronization of full flash brightness with maximum shutter opening. Synchronization was problematic with bulbs, which if ignited simultaneously with shutter operation would not reach full brightness before the shutter closed.

A single electronic flash unit is often mounted on a camera’s accessory shoe or a bracket; many inexpensive cameras have an electronic flash unit built in. For more sophisticated and longer-range lighting several synchronised flash units at different positions may be used.

Two professional xenon tube flashes
Ring flashes that fit to a camera’s lens can be used for shadow free macro photography, There are a few lenses with built-in ring-flash.[14]

In a photographic studio, more powerful and flexible studio flash systems are used. They usually contain a modeling light, an incandescent light bulb close to the flash tube; the continuous illumination of the modeling light lets the photographer visualize the effect of the flash. A system may comprise multiple synchronised flashes for multi-source lighting.

The strength of a flash device is often indicated in terms of a guide number designed to simplify exposure setting. The energy released by larger studio flash units, such as monolights, is indicated in watt-seconds.

Canon and Nikon name their electronic flash units Speedlite and Speedlight respectively, and these terms are frequently used as generic terms for electronic flash equipment.

High speed flash
An air-gap flash is a high-voltage device that discharges a flash of light with an exceptionally short duration, often much less than one microsecond. These are commonly used by scientists or engineers for examining extremely fast-moving objects or reactions, famous for producing images of bullets tearing through light bulbs and balloons (see Harold Eugene Edgerton). An example of a process by which to create a high speed flash is the exploding wire method.

A photo of a Smith & Wesson Model 686 firing, taken with a high speed air-gap flash. The photo was taken in a darkened room, with camera’s shutter open and the flash was triggered by the sound of the shot using a microphone.
Multi-flash
A camera that implements multiple flashes can be used to find depth edges or create stylized images. Such a camera has been developed by researchers at the Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories (MERL). Successive flashing of strategically placed flash mechanisms results in shadows along the depths of the scene. This information can be manipulated to suppress or enhance details or capture the intricate geometric features of a scene (even those hidden from the eye), to create a non-photorealistic image form. Such images could be useful in technical or medical imaging.[15]

Flash intensity
Unlike flashbulbs, the intensity of an electronic flash can be adjusted on some units. To do this, smaller flash units typically vary the capacitor discharge time, whereas larger (e.g., higher power, studio) units typically vary the capacitor charge. Color temperature can change as a result of varying the capacitor charge, thus making color corrections necessary. Due to advances in semiconductor technology, some studio units can now control intensity by varying the discharge time and thereby provide consistent color temperature.[16]

Flash intensity is typically measured in stops or in fractions (1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 etc.). Some monolights display an “EV Number”, so that a photographer can know the difference in brightness between different flash units with different watt-second ratings. EV10.0 is defined as 6400 watt-seconds, and EV9.0 is one stop lower, i.e. 3200 watt-seconds.[17]

Flash duration
Flash duration is commonly described by two numbers that are expressed in fractions of a second:

t.1 is the length of time the light intensity is above 0.1 (10%) of the peak intensity
t.5 is the length of time the light intensity is above 0.5 (50%) of the peak intensity
For example, a single flash event might have a t.5 value of 1/1200 and t.1 of 1/450. These values determine the ability of a flash to “freeze” moving subjects in applications such as sports photography.

In cases where intensity is controlled by capacitor discharge time, t.5 and t.1 decrease with decreasing intensity. Conversely, in cases where intensity is controlled by capacitor charge, t.5 and t.1 increase with decreasing intensity due to the non-linearity of the capacitor’s discharge curve.

Flash LED used in phones

Flash LED with charge pump integrated circuit
High-current flash LEDs are used as flash sources in camera phones, although they are not yet at the power levels to equal xenon flash devices (that are rarely used in phones) in still cameras. The major advantages of LEDs over xenon include low voltage operation, higher efficiency, and extreme miniaturization. The LED flash can also be used for illumination of video recordings or as an autofocus assist lamp in low-light conditions.

Focal-plane-shutter synchronization
Electronic flash units have shutter speed limits with focal-plane shutters. Focal-plane shutters expose using two curtains that cross the sensor. The first one opens and the second curtain follows it after a delay equal to the nominal shutter speed. A typical modern focal-plane shutter on a full-frame or smaller sensor camera takes about 1/400 s to 1/300 s to cross the sensor, so at exposure times shorter than this only part of the sensor is uncovered at any one time.

The time available to fire a single flash which uniformly illuminates the image recorded on the sensor is the exposure time minus the shutter travel time. Equivalently, the minimum possible exposure time is the shutter travel time plus the flash duration (plus any delays in triggering the flash).

For example, a Nikon D850 has a shutter travel time of about 2.4ms.[18] A full-power flash from a modern built-in or hot shoe mounted electronic flash has a typical duration of about 1ms, or a little less, so the minimum possible exposure time for even exposure across the sensor with a full-power flash is about 2.4ms + 1.0 ms = 3.4ms, corresponding to a shutter speed of about 1/290 s. However some time is required to trigger the flash. At the maximum (standard) D850 X-sync shutter speed of 1/250 s, the exposure time is 1/250 s = 4.0ms, so about 4.0ms – 2.4ms = 1.6ms are available to trigger and fire the flash, and with a 1ms flash duration, 1.6ms – 1.0ms = 0.6ms are available to trigger the flash in this Nikon D850 example.

Mid- to high-end Nikon DSLRs with a maximum shutter speed of 1/8000 s (roughly D7000 or D800 and above) have an unusual menu-selectable feature which increases the maximum X-Sync speed to 1/320 s = 3.1ms with some electronic flashes. At 1/320 s only 3.1ms – 2.4ms = 0.7ms are available to trigger and fire the flash while achieving a uniform flash exposure, so the maximum flash duration, and therefore maximum flash output, must be, and is, reduced.

Contemporary (2018) focal-plane shutter cameras with full-frame or smaller sensors typically have maximum normal X-sync speeds of 1/200 s or 1/250 s. Some cameras are limited to 1/160 s. X-sync speeds for medium format cameras when using focal-plane shutters are somewhat slower, e.g. 1/125 s,[19] because of the greater shutter travel time required for a wider, heavier, shutter that travels farther across a larger sensor.

In the past, slow-burning single-use flash bulbs allowed the use of focal-plane shutters at maximum speed because they produced continuous light for the time taken for the exposing slit to cross the film gate. If these are found they cannot be used on modern cameras because the bulb must be fired *before* the first shutter curtain begins to move (M-sync); the X-sync used for electronic flash normally fires only when the first shutter curtain reaches the end of its travel.

High-end flash units address this problem by offering a mode, typically called FP sync or HSS (High Speed Sync), which fires the flash tube multiple times during the time the slit traverses the sensor. Such units require communication with the camera and are thus dedicated to a particular camera make. The multiple flashes result in a significant decrease in guide number, since each is only a part of the total flash power, but it’s all that illuminates any particular part of the sensor. In general, if s is the shutter speed, and t is the shutter traverse time, the guide number reduces by √s / t. For example, if the guide number is 100, and the shutter traverse time is 5 ms (a shutter speed of 1/200s), and the shutter speed is set to 1/2000 s (0.5 ms), the guide number reduces by a factor of √0.5 / 5, or about 3.16, so the resultant guide number at this speed would be about 32.

Current (2010) flash units frequently have much lower guide numbers in HSS mode than in normal modes, even at speeds below the shutter traverse time. For example, the Mecablitz 58 AF-1 digital flash unit has a guide number of 58 in normal operation, but only 20 in HSS mode, even at low speeds.

Technique

Image exposed without additional lighting (left) and with fill flash (right)

Lighting produced by direct flash (left) and bounced flash (right)
As well as dedicated studio use, flash may be used as the main light source where ambient light is inadequate, or as a supplementary source in more complex lighting situations. Basic flash lighting produces a hard, frontal light unless modified in some way.[20] Several techniques are used to soften light from the flash or provide other effects.

Softboxes, diffusers that cover the flash lamp, scatter direct light and reduce its harshness. Reflectors, including umbrellas, flat-white backgrounds, drapes and reflector cards are commonly used for this purpose (even with small hand-held flash units). Bounce flash is a related technique in which flash is directed onto a reflective surface, for example a white ceiling or a flash umbrella, which then reflects light onto the subject. It can be used as fill-flash or, if used indoors, as ambient lighting for the whole scene. Bouncing creates softer, less artificial-looking illumination than direct flash, often reducing overall contrast and expanding shadow and highlight detail, and typically requires more flash power than direct lighting.[20] Part of the bounced light can be also aimed directly on the subject by “bounce cards” attached to the flash unit which increase the efficiency of the flash and illuminate shadows cast by light coming from the ceiling. It’s also possible to use one’s own palm for that purpose, resulting in warmer tones on the picture, as well as eliminating the need to carry additional accessories.

Fill flash or “fill-in flash” describes flash used to supplement ambient light in order to illuminate a subject close to the camera that would otherwise be in shade relative to the rest of the scene. The flash unit is set to expose the subject correctly at a given aperture, while shutter speed is calculated to correctly expose for the background or ambient light at that aperture setting. Secondary or slave flash units may be synchronized to the master unit to provide light from additional directions. The slave units are electrically triggered by the light from the master flash. Many small flashes and studio monolights have optical slaves built in. Wireless radio transmitters, such as PocketWizards, allow the receiver unit to be around a corner, or at a distance too far to trigger using an optical sync.

To strobe, some high end units can be set to flash a specified number of times at a specified frequency. This allows action to be frozen multiple times in a single exposure.[21]

Colored gels can also be used to change the color of the flash. Correction gels are commonly used, so that the light of the flash is the same as tungsten lights (using a CTO gel) or fluorescent lights.

Open flash, Free flash or manually-triggered flash refers to modes in which the photographer manually triggers the flash unit to fire independently of the shutter.[22]

Drawbacks
The distance limitation as seen when taking picture of the wooden floor
Flash
The same picture taken with incandescent ambient light, using a longer exposure and a higher ISO speed setting. The distance is no longer restricted, but the colors are unnatural because of a lack of color temperature compensation, and the picture may suffer from more grain or noise.
No flash
Left: the distance limitation as seen when taking picture of the wooden floor. Right: the same picture taken with incandescent ambient light, using a longer exposure and a higher ISO speed setting. The distance is no longer restricted, but the colors are unnatural because of a lack of color temperature compensation, and the picture may suffer from more grain or noise.

Using a flash in a museum is mostly prohibited.
Using on-camera flash will give a very harsh light, which results in a loss of shadows in the image, because the only lightsource is in practically the same place as the camera. Balancing the flash power and ambient lighting or using off-camera flash can help overcome these issues. Using an umbrella or softbox (the flash will have to be off-camera for this) makes softer shadows.

A typical problem with cameras using built-in flash units is the low intensity of the flash; the level of light produced will often not suffice for good pictures at distances of over 3 metres (10 ft) or so. Dark, murky pictures with excessive image noise or “grain” will result. In order to get good flash pictures with simple cameras, it is important not to exceed the recommended distance for flash pictures. Larger flashes, especially studio units and monoblocks, have sufficient power for larger distances, even through an umbrella, and can even be used against sunlight at short distances. Cameras which automatically flash in low light conditions often do not take into account the distance to the subject, causing them to fire even when the subject is several tens of metres away and unaffected by the flash. In crowds at sports matches, concerts and so on, the stands or the auditorium can be a constant sea of flashes, resulting in distraction to the performers or players and providing absolutely no benefit to the photographers.

The “red-eye effect” is another problem with on camera and ring flash units. Since the retina of the human eye reflects red light straight back in the direction it came from, pictures taken from straight in front of a face often exhibit this effect. It can be somewhat reduced by using the “red eye reduction” found on many cameras (a pre-flash that makes the subject’s irises contract). However, very good results can be obtained only with a flash unit that is separated from the camera, sufficiently far from the optical axis, or by using bounce flash, where the flash head is angled to bounce light off a wall, ceiling or reflector.

On some cameras the flash exposure measuring logic fires a pre-flash very quickly before the real flash. In some camera/people combinations this will lead to shut eyes in every picture taken. The blink response time seems to be around 1/10 of a second. If the exposure flash is fired at approximately this interval after the TTL measuring flash, people will be squinting or have their eyes shut. One solution may be the FEL (flash exposure lock) offered on some more expensive cameras, which allows the photographer to fire the measuring flash at some earlier time, long (many seconds) before taking the real picture. Unfortunately many camera manufacturers do not make the TTL pre-flash interval configurable.

Flash distracts people, limiting the number of pictures that can be taken without irritating them. Photographing with flash may not be permitted in some museums even after purchasing a permit for taking pictures. Flash equipment may take some time to set up, and like any grip equipment, may need to be carefully secured, especially if hanging overhead, so it does not fall on anyone. A small breeze can easily topple a flash with an umbrella on a lightstand if it is not tied down or sandbagged. Larger equipment (e.g., monoblocks) will need a supply of AC power.

In photography, flash synchronization or flash sync is the synchronizing the firing of a photographic flash with the opening of the shutter admitting light to photographic film or electronic image sensor.

PC-socket
In cameras with mechanical (clockwork) shutters synchronization is supported by an electrical contact within the shutter mechanism, which closes the circuit at the appropriate moment in the shutter opening process. In electronic digital cameras, the mechanism is usually a programmable electronic timing circuit, which may, in some cameras, take input from a mechanical shutter contact. The flash is connected electrically to the camera either by a cable with a standardised coaxial PC (for Prontor/Compur) 3.5 mm (1/8″) connector[1] (as defined in ISO 519[2]), or via contacts in an accessory mount (hot shoe) bracket.

Faster shutter speeds are often better when there is significant ambient illumination, and flash is used to flash fill subjects that are backlit without motion blur, or to increase depth of field by using a small aperture. In another creative use, the photographer of a moving subject may deliberately combine a slow shutter speed with flash exposure in order to record motion blur of the ambient-lit regions of the image superimposed on the flash-lit regions.

Contents
1 S, M, F, FP, X and HSS sync
2 Rear-curtain sync
3 Wireless sync
4 See also
5 References
S, M, F, FP, X and HSS sync

The photometric output of the GE Synchro-Press No. 11 flashbulb is shown here. Like all “M” bulbs, its peak output was defined as occurring 20 milliseconds after applying electrical current. The No. 11 had a peak luminous flux of 1.8 million lumens. Its rated luminous energy, Qv of 23,000 lumen⋅seconds is the shaded area to the right of the definitional shutter opening point (1/800 th of a second before the point of peak luminous flux).
X-sync is the simplest to explain and implement: the flash is fired at the instant the shutter is fully open. Electronic flash equipment produces a very short flash.

Cameras designed for use with flash bulbs generally had one or more of S (slow) sync, M (medium) sync, F (fast) sync, or FP/FPX (flat peak) sync, designed for use with corresponding bulb types. These sync modes close the contacts a few milliseconds before the shutter is open, to give the flashbulb time to reach peak brightness before exposing the film. Class M bulbs reach their peak illumination 20 milliseconds after ignition, and class F lamps reach their peak at approximately 5 milliseconds.[3] Most standard flash bulbs used M sync. X sync closes the flash contact just as the shutter blades are almost completely open.

Cameras with sync speeds for S, M, and F had delays designed so any given camera’s fastest shutter speed would be centered at the point of peak intensity for any of the three given delay classes of bulbs. This maximized the guide number at the fastest shutter speeds since errors of even several milliseconds would cause significant underexposures. As illustrated in the graph at right for the General Electric Synchro-Flash No. 11, which was an “M” class bulb (20 ms delay to peak by design), a leaf shutter-type camera with a top shutter speed of 1/400 th of a second would open its shutter 19 milliseconds after electrical current was applied to the bulb.

FP sync was used with FP (flat-peak) flash bulbs designed specifically for use with focal-plane shutters. In these shutters, although each part of the film is exposed for the rated exposure time, the film is exposed by a slit which moves across the film in a time (the “X-sync speed”) of the order of 1/100″; although the exposure of each part of the film may be 1/2000″, the last part of the film is exposed later by the X-sync time than the first part, and a brief flash will illuminate only a strip of film. FP bulbs burned close to full brightness for the full X-sync time, exposing the whole frame even at high shutter speeds.

The Nikon F offered FP, M, and ME bulb synchronizations, in addition to the X sync.[4]

X (xenon) sync is a mode designed for use with electronic flash.[5] In this mode, the timing of the contacts coincides exactly with the full opening of the shutter, since xenon flashes respond almost instantly.

Due to their construction, focal plane shutters, as used on most SLRs, only allow normal xenon flash units to be used at shutter speeds slow enough that the entire shutter is open at once, typically at shutter speeds of 1/60 or slower, although some modern cameras may have an X-sync speed as high as 1/500 (e.g. Nikon’s D40 DSLRs). Special electronic flash units for focal-plane shutters fire several times as the slit moves across the film. Electronic shutters used in some digital cameras do not have this limitation and may allow a very high X-sync speed.

Leaf shutters, which are generally situated within the lens housing, open to expose the entire image at once, and therefore allow flash sync across all shutter speeds (up to 1/1600″ with a Schneider Kreuznach lens on a Phase One/Mamiya 645DF camera).

The Friedrich Deckel [de] Synchro-Compur leaf shutter of the Braun Paxette Reflex offered V, X, and M flash synchronization, whereby V (German: “Vorlauf”) was used in conjunction with self-timer.

Higher sync speeds are useful as they allow ambient light to be controlled by increasing shutter speed rather than reducing aperture. This enables the same ambient light exposure at a larger aperture; this larger aperture in turn reduces the amount of flash output necessary to illuminate a subject.

Today, certain modern xenon flash units have the ability to produce a longer-duration flash to permit flash synchronization at shorter shutter speeds, therefore called high-speed sync (HSS). Instead of delivering one burst of light, the units deliver several smaller bursts over a time interval as short as 1/125 of a second. This allows light to be delivered to the entire area of the film or image sensor even though the shutter is never fully open at any moment, similar to FP sync. The downside is that the flash is of less effective intensity since the individual bursts are lower powered than the normal capability of the flash unit. Only certain camera and flash combinations support this feature, and the camera-flash pairings are almost exclusively from the same manufacturer. Wireless remote flash triggers with these features are becoming more common.

Rear-curtain sync
Some modern electronic cameras include the ability to fire the flash just before the closing of the shutter, so that moving objects will show a streak where they came from and a sharp image where they were at the end of the exposure, useful for moving objects to convey a sense of speed. This mode is called either rear-curtain sync or 2nd-curtain sync.

Wireless sync
Some of the synchronization methods employ optical or radio triggering that requires no electrical connection to the camera or main flash unit. This allows the camera to move without the restriction of cables. Optical triggering requires at least one flash electrically connected to the camera. A sensor, either built-in or external to a remote slave flash unit, will sense the light from the master flash and cause a remote flash to fire. Radio triggering requires a transmitter electrically connected to the camera to trigger a remote receiver connected to (or embedded into) a remote flash unit.

One of the problems with optical triggering is that in modern digital cameras a built-in or shoemount flash releases one or more ‘pre-flashes’. Many optical slave units will respond to the pre-flash, thus firing the slave flash too early. Sometimes this can be prevented by setting the camera to manual (‘M’). However, a good number of cameras will still fire pre-flashes even on a manual setting. This is equally true for compact cameras as well as the more professional digital SLR cameras. Still, a flash connected to the PC jack on a camera or in the hotshoe will usually not fire pre-flashes in the ‘M’ setting and therefore can be used to optically trigger a number of slave flashes.

Many compact cameras, however, only have a built-in flash and no hotshoe and no connector for an external flash and there is no way to suppress the pre-flash. In those instances, slave units are used that are able to skip a number of flashes, thus skipping one or more pre-flashes and only firing simultaneously with the main flash firing. Some modern flash units have this capacity built in. An example at the low end is the Godox 18, a simple flash unit that can be set to skip a max of 3 flashes. A more advanced flash that can set to skip one pre-flash is the popular ‘strobist’ flash, the Lumopro160. Also, some studio flashes can be set to ignore pre-flash.

Rather than selecting a specific number of pre-flashes to ignore, some slave units have a learning mode in which firing one flash teaches them on which flash to synchronise.

Several camera equipment manufacturers have support for remote flash triggering built into at least some of their camera and flash models. This eliminates the issue of slave flashes triggering upon seeing a pre-flash, as the master flash unit (whether a shoemount flash or the camera’s pop-up flash) sends predefined signals to the slave units to control them. However, the user is restricted to using flash units from that camera manufacturer, or a limited selection of third-party units which are compatible with it.

To resolve the issues of optical triggering, camera accessory manufacturers (e.g. PocketWizard, Cactus) have developed radio devices to trigger shoemount flashes wirelessly. Radio signals can easily transmit to a longer distance. They would not be wrongly triggered by pre-flashes. The off-camera flashes do not have to be placed in the line of sight with the camera. Comparatively, with radio triggering, photographers have more freedom to locate the off-camera flashes.

A ring flash is a circular photographic electronic flash that fits around a camera lens. Unlike point light sources, a ring flash provides even illumination with few shadows visible in the resulting photographs because the origin of the light is very close to (and surrounds) the optical axis of the lens. It was invented by Lester A. Dine in 1952 for use in dental photography,[1] but now is commonly used in applications such as macro, portrait and fashion photography.

As the efficiency of light sources, and the sensitivity of photographic imaging sensors, increased, the use of a continuous ring light instead of a flash increased. A ring light has the same advantages as a ring flash, but produces continuous light at a lower intensity, so the image can be examined before taking the photograph. In the past a circular fluorescent tube was often used; LEDs are now frequently used. Brightness and colour temperature can be changed on some devices. In addition to lights that are fitted to the filter ring of a camera, inexpensive versions that clip onto a mobile phone or other device equipped with a camera (facing away from or towards the user) are available.[2][unreliable source?]

Contents
1 Construction
2 Applications
3 See also
4 References
5 External links
Construction

Samigon ring flash unit attached to lens of single-lens reflex camera
A macro ring flash typically consists of a power and control unit mounted on a hot shoe, and a circular flash unit mounted on the front of a lens. Power is supplied by batteries in the shoe-mount unit and a cable conveys power and control signals to the circular flash unit. In larger ring flashes, which are typically used for fashion photography, power may be supplied by an external battery or line power supply, or the power supply and light may be combined in one unit.[3]

Light is usually generated by one or more flash tubes or by multiple LEDs. In some flash units with multiple flash tubes, each flash tube can be independently enabled. Some ring flashes have focusing lenses that result in ideal light distribution at a particular distance from the subject.

Other devices are available that project light in a fashion similar to ring flashes. For example, flash diffusers have no light source of their own, but instead mount in front of a conventional flash unit and transmit the light to a ring-shaped diffuser at the front of the lens. Some other passive light modifiers can shape the light from a conventional shoe-mounted flash into that of a ring flash. These adapters use diffusers and reflectors to “bend” the light in an arc around the lens axis and then emit the light from that arc. These devices maintain any through-the-lens (TTL) lighting functions that are shared by the camera and flash because the timing of the light has not changed.

Applications
Ring flashes are commonly used in macro (close-up) photography. When the subject is very close to the camera, the distance of the flash from the optical axis becomes significant. For objects close to the camera, the size of the ring flash is significant and so the light encounters the subject from many angles in the same way that it does with a conventional flash with soft box. This has the effect of further softening any shadows.

Ring flashes are also popular in portrait and fashion photography because they soften the shadows created by other, off-axis lights, and create interesting circular highlights in a model’s eyes. Ring Lights are also often used in the beauty and cosmetic industry, mostly by make-up artists.[citation needed] This is due to the lightweight and compact features of a ring light that make it suitable for freelance beauty and make-up artists.[citation needed]

Ring flashes are also used in microscopy. The ring flash (usually LED[citation needed]) is mounted on the objective lens of an optical microscope. The main use of this tool is the photographing of microscopic organisms[citation needed]. A ring flash works on a microscope in much the same way as it does on a camera; it reduces reflections while bathing the subject in light.

Fill flash is a photographic technique used to brighten deep shadow areas, typically outdoors on sunny days, though the technique is useful any time the background is significantly brighter than the subject of the photograph, particularly in backlit subjects. To use fill flash, the aperture and shutter speed are adjusted to correctly expose the background, and the flash is fired to lighten the foreground.

Most point and shoot cameras include a fill flash mode that forces the flash to fire, even in bright light.

Depending on the distance to the subject, using the full power of the flash may greatly overexpose the subject especially at close range. Certain cameras allow the level of flash to be manually adjusted e.g. 1/3, 1/2, or 1/8 power, so that both the foreground and background are correctly exposed, or allow an automatic flash exposure compensation.

Contents
1 Pros and cons of near-axis fill flash
2 Overlapping flash on sunlit faces
3 Flash could make the shadows darker
4 See also
5 External links
Pros and cons of near-axis fill flash
The advantage of using a fill flash located near the lens axis is “normalizing” exposure in situations like backlighting which exceed the ability of the camera to handle the contrast of the lighting. The disadvantage is the same one seen in indoor near-axis flash shots; a lack of directional modeling clues. Near-axis flash indoors and outdoors looks unnatural because natural light comes from overhead putting specular highlights higher on round surfaces like cheeks and creates downward and sideways shadow clues which, combined, help the brain interpret the 3D shape of objects in 2D photographs.

More natural looking single flash results can be obtained by raising the flash vertically to create a more natural downward angle, but keeping it centered. This is usually preferable when photographing people because it hides most of the shadows, especially the very distracting nose shadow. In this case the shadow is mostly hidden down below the nose and not noticed. The reason for not moving a single flash off axis sideways rather than vertically is that any shadows the flash creates will be unfilled, dark and potentially unflattering if poorly placed on a subject’s face.

Bouncing a flash from a surface above the subject, such as a ceiling, creates the same downward modeling direction but isn’t a strategy which can be used outdoors. When the flash is moved off-axis or bounced to create directional modeling its role changes from “fill” to that of “key” light.

Overlapping flash on sunlit faces
Faces oriented towards the sun at midday will usually have dark shadows in the eye sockets due to the steep downward angle of the sun and the preference of the subjects not to be blinded by the sun. When near-axis fill flash is added in that situation it hits the shaded eyes and sunlit face equally so the eyes will always remain darker than the face. What happens on a cause and effect level is the flash acts like fill and more key light where it overlaps. The eyes will seem brighter due to the addition of catchlight reflections from the flash but they will still look dull and lifeless.

So while near axis fill works in the technical sense and works fine for general candid shooting it isn’t the ideal strategy for a close-up portrait were the eyes are a more critical focal point. The more ideal strategy for portraits is open shade or backlit which allows the subject to raise their face and eyes into the skylight without squinting.

Flash could make the shadows darker
In sunny backlight the problem is more contrast than the camera can handle. But on an overcast day the problem is a lack of contrast. In overcast conditions adding flash will have the net effect of making the shadows darker. Even if the flash is near-axis fill flash it will fall off front-to-back more rapidly than the natural lighting and increase contrast. If moved off axis the flash becomes a “key” light and can be used to create a higher contrast directional lighting pattern on the face. The greater the amount of off-axis flash added, the darker the shadows will become after exposure is adjusted for normal looking highlights.